Las masculinidades en el primer franquismo(1936-1959) discursos y subjetividades

  1. Jiménez Aguilar, Francisco
Supervised by:
  1. Miguel Ángel del Arco Blanco Director

Defence university: Universidad de Granada

Fecha de defensa: 29 January 2021

  1. Cristina Moreiras-Menor Chair
  2. Teresa María Ortega López Secretary
  3. Nerea Aresti Esteban Committee member
  4. Zira Box Committee member
  5. Jorge Marco Carretero Committee member

Type: Thesis


Virility has been highlighted as one of the dominant characteristics of fascist movements and regimes. In particular, the creation of a masculinity with authoritarian, youthful, martial, and ultranationalist features. The study of masculinities has aroused greater historiographical interest recently. There is a growing awareness of its historicity, plurality, and variability. Social Sciences such as anthropology or sociology have made more complex theories of power relations and inequality between men and women. Nevertheless, explaining these changes over time remains one of the greatest challenges. This thesis analyses masculinities in the Franco regime (1936-1959). This research has an interdisciplinary approach based on conceptual and theoretical tools of feminism, post-structuralism, and post-Marxism. It provides a multilevel approach that emphasises the everyday history of masculinity at national and local levels. For this purpose, a case study of the province of Granada, Andalusia, has been carried out. The analysis of these issues has been drawn on a wide range of sources. To study Francoist political cultures, newspapers, educational, and popular sources were used to obtain a more common gender approach. Oral sources have made possible the analysis of subjectivation processes and the narratives used by men to give an account of their masculinity through personal experiences. Finally, the manuscript is divided into an introduction, two parts and conclusions. Each chapter addresses the relationship of masculinity with family, nationalism, and work. The first part explains the process that led to a Francoist martial masculinity becoming dominant and how it was displaced by a work-based masculinity over the years. It also reconstructs the cultural basis of the breadwinner and the transformations that took place in fatherhood. The second part discusses the local and subjective expression of these models of masculinity. On the one hand, it reflects how different models of masculinity coexisted in military service. On the other hand, it reconstructs work-based masculinity around family and work. This has made possible to refuse the idea of a single ideal of masculinity and yet to affirm the plurality of hegemonic masculinities. The relevance of the formation of a martial manliness and a masculinity based on work by political cultures of Francoism has underlined, presenting an approach that considers how men embodied these models, reproducing or transforming them. The results provided by this research thus makes it possible to break with the exclusive study of the fascist "new man", to provide a cultural framework for the masculinity embodied by ordinary Spaniards, and to offer a more satisfactory view of their evolution and the dictatorship’s one from its foundation to its international recognition and the beginning of Developmentalism.