Corruption perception following privatization reformsthe moderating role of governance

  1. Cuadrado-Ballesteros, Beatriz 1
  2. Peña-Miguel, Noemí 2
  1. 1 Universidad de Salamanca

    Universidad de Salamanca

    Salamanca, España


  2. 2 Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea

    Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea

    Lejona, España


Revista de contabilidad = Spanish accounting review: [RC-SAR]

ISSN: 1138-4891

Year of publication: 2020

Volume: 23

Issue: 1

Pages: 127-137

Type: Article

DOI: 10.6018/RCSAR.361041 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openDIGITUM editor

More publications in: Revista de contabilidad = Spanish accounting review: [RC-SAR]

Sustainable development goals


This study analyzes perceived corruption following privatization reforms, taking into account the role of governance quality in 22 European countries from 2002 to 2013. Initial analysis did not reveal significant changes in perceived corruption after privatization reforms, but the results are moderated by governance quality. In general, the empirical findings suggest that corruption is lower when the quality of governance increases, and it additionally affects perceived corruption after privatization reforms. Concretely, accountability, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, the rule of law, and control of corruption mechanisms are essential to prevent corruption after privatization.

Funding information

We are grateful for the financial support received from the University of the Basque Country under Grant Consolidated Research Group EJ/GV: IT 897-16.


Bibliographic References

  • Al-Marhubi, F. (2004). The Determinants of Governance: A Cross-Country Analysis. Contemporary Economic Policy, 2(3), 394−406.
  • Andrews, M. (2008). The Good Governance Agenda: Beyond Indicators without Theory. Oxford Development Studies, 36(4), 379−407.
  • Arellano, M., and Bond, S. (1991). Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations. Review of Economic Studies, 58, 277–297.
  • Arellano, M., and Bover, O. (1995). Another Look at the Instrumental Variables Estimation of Error Components Models. Journal of Econometrics, 68, 29–51.
  • Arikan, G.G. (2008). How Privatizations Affect the Level of Perceived Corruption. Public Finance Review, 36(6), 706−727.
  • Batterbury, S.P.J., and Fernando, J.L. (2006). Rescaling Governance and the Impacts of Political and Environmental Decentralization: An Introduction. World Development, 34(11), 1851−1863.
  • Baum, C., Schaffer, M., and Stillman, S. (2003). Instrumental variables and GMM: Estimation and testing. Stata Journal, 3(1), 1–31.
  • Bel, G., and Costas, A. (2006). Do Public Sector Reforms Get Rusty? Local Privatization in Spain. Journal of Policy Reform, 9(1), 1−24.
  • Birdsall, N., and Nellis, J. (2003). Winners and Losers: Assessing the Distributional Impact of Privatization. World Development, 31(10), 1617−1633.
  • Bjorvatn, K., and Soreide, T. (2005). Corruption and Privatization. European Journal of Political Economy, 21, 903−914.
  • Bortolotti, B., Fantini, M., and Siniscalco, D. (2001). Privatisation: Politics, Institutions, and Financial Markets. Emerging Markets Review, 2(2), 109−137.
  • Bortolotti, B., Fantini, M., and Siniscalco, D. (2003). Privatisation around the World: Evidence from Panel Data. Journal of Public Economics, 88, 305−332.
  • Boubakri, N., Cosset, J.C., and Smaoui, H. (2009). Does Privatization Foster Changes in the Quality of Legal Institutions?. The Journal of Financial Research, 32(2), 169−197.
  • Boubakri, N., Smaoui, H., and Zmmiti, M. (2009). Privatisation Dynamics and Economic Growth. Journal of Business and Policy Research, 4(2), 16−44.
  • Boyne G.A. (1997). Public choice theory and local government structure: an evaluation of reorganisation in Scotland and Wales. Local Government Studies, 23(3), 56-72.
  • Buchanan, J.M. (2009). Politics without romance: a sketch of positive public choice theory and its normative implications. In J. Buchanan and R. Tollison (Eds.), The Theory of Public Choice- II (pp. 275-338). Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.
  • Campos, J.E., Pradhan, S., and Recanatini, F. (2007). Where to Next? The Challenges Ahead. In J.E. Campos and S. Pradhan (Eds.), The Many Faces of Corruption: Tracking Vulnerabilities at the Sector Level, part IV (pp. 429−435). Washington, DC: World Bank. (ISBN 978-0-8213-6725-4)
  • Clarke, G.R.G., and Xu, L.C. (2004). Privatization, Competition, and Corruption: How Characteristics of Bribe Takers and Payers Affect Bribes to Utilities. Journal of Public Economics, 88, 2067−2097.
  • Downs, A. (1957). An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Row. (ISBN 0060417501 9780060417505)
  • Hansen, L. (1982). Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators. Econometrica, 50(3), 1029–1054.
  • Hodge, G.A. (2002). Good Governance and the Privatising State: Some International Lessons. Journal of Economic and Social Policy, 6(2), Article 4. DOI: 10.1177/1037969X0202700405.
  • Hyden, G., Court, J., and Mease, K. (2004). Making Sense of Governance: Empirical Evidence from Sixteen Developing Countries. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. (ISBN 978-1588262677)
  • Isham, J., Kaufman, D., and Pritchett, L. (1997). Civil liberties, democracy and the performance of government projects. The World Bank Economic Review, 11, 219–242.
  • Kaufmann, D., and Siegelbaum, P. (1997). Privatization and Corruption in the Transition Economies. Journal of International Affairs, 50(2), 419−458.
  • Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., and Mastruzzi, M. (2011). The worldwide governance indicators: methodology and analytical issues. Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 3(2), 220-246.
  • Kooiman, J. (1999). Social – Political Governance: Overview, Reflections and Design. Public Management: An International Journal of Research and Theory, 1(1), 67−92.
  • Koyuncu, C., Ozturkler, H, and Yilmaz, R. (2010). Privatization and Corruption in Transition Economies: A Panel Study. Journal of Economic Policy Reform, 13(3), 277−284.
  • La Porta, R., López-de-Silanes, F., Shleifer, A., and Vishny, R.W. (1999). The Quality of Government. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organizations, 15, 222−279.
  • Laffont, J.J., and Meleu, M. (1999). A Positive Theory of Privatisation for Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of African Economies, 8 (AERC supplement), 30−67.
  • Langbein, L., and Knack, S. (2010). The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Six, One, or None?. The Journal of Development Studies, 46(2), 350−370.
  • Manzetti, L. (1999). Privatization South American Style. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ISBN ISBN: 9780198294665).
  • Megginson, W.L., and Netter, J.M. (2001). From State to Market: A Survey of Empirical Studies on Privatisation. Journal of Economic Literature, 39(2), 321−389.
  • Montesinos, V., and Brusca, I. (2019). Non-financial reporting in the public sector: alternatives, trends and opportunities. Revista de Contabilidad-Spanish Accounting Review, 22(2), 122-128.
  • Pindado, J., and Requejo, I. (2015). Panel Data: A Methodology for Model Specification and Testing. In K. Paudyal (Ed.), Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, Vol. 4 (Finance).
  • Roodman, D. (2009). How to do xtabond2: An Introduction to Difference and System GMM in Stata. Stata Journal, 9(1), 86–136.
  • Royo, S., Yetano, A., and García-Lacalle, J. (2019). Accountability Styles in State-Owned enterprises: The good, the bad, the ugly... And the pretty. Revista de Contabilidad-Spanish Accounting Review, 22(2), 156-170.
  • Shleifer, A. (1999). State versus Private Ownership. NBER Working Paper 6665. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Stoker, G. (1998). Governance as Theory: Five Propositions. International Social Science Journal, 50(155), 187−195.
  • UNDP (1997). Governance for Sustainable Human Development. New York: United Nations Development Program.
  • World Bank (1992). Governance and Development. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
  • World Bank (1997). Helping Countries Combat Corruption: The Role of the World Bank. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Available at: [Accessed 10.04.2019]
  • Zekos, G. (2004). Ethics Versus Corruption in Globalization. Journal of Management Development, 23(7), 631−647.
  • Zohlnhöfer, R., Obinger, H., and Wolf, F. (2008). Partisan Politics, Globalization, and the Determinants of Privatisation Proceeds in Advanced Democracies (1990−2000). Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 21(1), 95−112.